In 1758 Carl Linnaeus published the 10th volume of his Systema Naturae. This volume became the starting point for modern biological nomenclature. Among the species described in this volume is the Elephant. Today three species of elephants are recognized, but Linnaeus recognized only one species, which he called <i>Elephas maximus</i>. Today that scientific name is associated with the Indian elephant. Up till today the only known surviving specimen from the type series is a fetus preserved in alcohol. This specimen is now in the collections of the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) and is informally referred to as “Sebas elephant”. However, it has been suggested based both on morphological examinations and historical records that the fetus in the collections of NRM is not an Indian elephant but is actually one of the two African species. In this study we use ancient DNA and high-throughput proteomic analyses to determine the true species identity of this specimen. In addition, through thorough archival researches we were also able to find a previously unknown surviving type specimen from Linnaeus’ original description.